Madhya Pradesh, popularly known as M.P, is a state, situated in the center of India. It is second largest state of country with an area of 308,245 km². Madhya Pradesh is fifth largest state of India in terms of population with 72,597,565 inhabitants.
|Symbols of Madhya Pradesh|
Song: Sukh ka data
|Flower: White Lilly
Some of the Bhimbetka rock shelters exhibits the beginning of Indian Stone Age and were inhabited by Homo erectus even over 100,000 years ago. Chalcolithic sites have also been discovered in western part of M.P. In 320 BCE, today’s all area of Madhya Pradesh was a part of Mauryan Empire. After Mauryans, some other dynasties like Sakas, Kushanas and Satavahanas ruled over this region. Subsequently, the region came under the control of Gupta empire, Vakataka‘s and Rashtrakuta Dynasty.
The rulers of this region in Medieval period were Gurjar clans, Paramaras of Malwa and Chandelas of Bundelkhand. Delhi Sultanate also ruled over the northern part of Madhya Pradesh. After the arose and collapse of Malwa Sultanate in fourteenth & fifteenth centuries, this region came under the rule of Sultanate of Gujarat in 1531. Later the most parts of the region were controlled by Sher Shah Suri and Hemu. After 1556, most of Madhya Pradesh came under the kingdom of Mughals. However some parts remained under control of Gond kings. After the year of 1707, Marathas took control of most parts of Madhya Pradesh from 1720 and 1760. However, Scindias also remained there in northern parts.
After 1818 the whole area came in the control of Britishers. A number of anti-ruler activities and protests took placed during British rule in India. After independence, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal em-merged in 1956 to form a new state called Madhya Pradesh. Chhattisgarh formed as a new state in November 2000, when the southeastern part of M.P teared-up.
It is second largest state of India with an area of 308,245 km². The state is bordered by Uttar Pradesh on northeast, Rajasthan on northwest, Gujarat on west, Maharashtra on south and Chhattisgarh on east. Madhya Pradesh is composed of following regions: Malwa Plateau, Nimar Plateau, Kaimur Plateau, Vindhyan Plateau, Satpura Plateau, Satpura Hills & Jhabua Hills; Narmada valley, Wainganga valley, Gwalior Region, Bundelkhand Region and Leeshiv. Geographic coordinates of Madhya Pradesh are latitude 21.2°N-26.87°N and longitude 74°02′-82°49′ E.
Economy of Madhya Pradesh is agrarian with crops of wheat, sugarcane, rice, soybean, gram, maize, cotton, arhar etc. Mandsaur is largest laudanum producer in India. Morena is famous for honey production. Tendu leaves production empowers rural economy of state. On the hand of industrialization there are 5 SEZs, 3 ITeS, 1 mineral-based and 1 agro-based research zones. The largest reserves of diamond and copper in India lies in M.P. Coal, coalbed methane, manganese and dolomite etc. are some other major mineral reserves. 6 Ordnance Factories are also working in the state of Madhya Pradesh.
Madhya Pradesh owns three World Heritage Sites: Khajuraho, Sanchi’s Buddhist Monuments and Bhimbetka Rock Shelters. Other important architectural sites are located at Orcha, Bawangaja, Bhopal, Chanderi, Chitrakuta, Dhar, Jabalpur, Maheshwar, Mandleshwar, Mandu, Omkareshwar, Mandla, Ujjain etc. State is famous for its folk musics. Tansen and Baiju Bawra were the native of Madhya Pradesh. The local styles of folk music includes Faga, Bhartahari, Kalbelia, Bhat, Kalgi Turra, Alha etc. Some major folk dances are Sher, baredi, Saila, kanara, Duldul Ghodi, Mandlya etc.
Madhya Pradesh has literacy rate of 70.60% as per 2011 census of India. State has lakhs of schools, hundreds of engineering & architecture colleges, management institutes and medical colleges. Some famous research institutions are: IISER, AIIMS, IIITDM, IIITM, IIT & IIM.
Madhya Pradesh has the capital city of Bhopal. There are 51 Districts, grouped into 10 divisions which are further divided into 313 blocks and 23043 villages. State has 16 Nagar Nigams, 100 Nagar Palikas and 238 Nagar Panchayats. Madhya Pradesh has 230 seated Legislative Assembly. States has 40 seats of Parliament of India in which 29 are reserved for Lok Sabha and 11 for Rajya Sabha.
Madhya Pradesh has a population of 72,597,565 including 37,612,920 males and 34,984,645 females with a density of 236/km2. The rural population is recorded as 52,537,899 and urban as 20,059,666. Sex ratio is 930 which is lower than national average of 978. These stats are based on 2011 census of India. 46 recognised Scheduled Tribes including 3 “Special Primitive Tribal Groups” reside in the state. Hinduism (90.89%) is the largest religion.